Scientific name: Crocus sativus
Persian name: Saffron
English name: Saffron, True Saffron, Dye Saffron, Crocus
Arabic name: Al- Zaeferan, Kroko
Saffron belongs to the lily family (Iridaceae). The stigma and style of the flower of this plant were collected and dried and used for seasoning, spices, food coloring and drinks. This plant has been considered the most expensive spice in the world for many years, and it is known as the golden spice due to its yellow color and high price. Its stigma contains several volatile compounds, the most important of them is called safranal which gives saffron its pleasant flavor and the carotenoid composition of crocin gives its beautiful color.
Saffron has other carotenoids such as Zatin, lyopen, alpha and beta carotene. It also a very rich source of minerals such as copper, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, selenium, zinc and magnesium. The medicinal compounds in this plant have been considered by most medical schools since ancient times and have been recommended in the treatment of many diseases.
Important therapeutic properties and effects:
• Strengthen immune system
• Protects the body against infections
• Treatment and cure of asthma
• Treatment of muscle cramps
• Reducing stress
• Treatment of anemia and heart failure
• Relieve anxiety
This plant belongs to the Mediterranean, southern Europe and western Asia. Now, Iran has the highest production and export of saffron in the world.